Comics in General
Academic Resources
Collecting Guides
Countries / Regions
Genres of Comics
How-To Guides
Interview Collections
News About Comics
Publishers & Groups
Subject Areas / Topics
Titles & Characters
Other Links




Wright, Thomas. A History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art. ("The orginal text is reprinted from the London edition of 1865 from a copy in the collections of The New York Public Library Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations.") New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1968. 508pp.

Preface to the New Edition ...v

Introduction: The Meaning of the Grotesque - Frances K. Barash ... vi

Errata ... lix
Preface ... lxiii
Contents ... lxix

Origin of caricature and grotesque - Spirit of caricature in Egypt - Monsters: Python and Gorgon - Greece - The Dionysiac ceremonies, and origins of the drama - The old comedy - Love of parody - Parodies on subjects taken from Grecian mythology: The visit to the lover; Apollo at Delphi - The partiality of parody continued among the Romans: The flight of the Aeneas

Origin of the stage in Rome - Uses of the mask among the Romans - Scenes from the Roman comedy - The Sannio and Mimus - The Roman drama - The Roman satirists -Caricature - Animals introduced in the characters of men -  The Pigmies, and their introduction into caricature; The farm-yard; The painter's studio; The procession - Political caricature in Pompeii; The graffiti

The period of transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages - The Roman Mimi continued to exist - The Teutonic after-dinner entertainments - Clerical satires: Archbishop Heriger and the dreamer; The supper of the Saints - Tansition from ancient to medieval art - Taste for monstrous animals, dragons, etc.; Church of San Fedele, at Como - Spirit of caricature and love of grotesque among the Anglo-Saxons - Grotesque figures of demons - Natural tendency of the early medieval arists to draw in caricature - Examples from early manuscripts and sculptures

The diabolical in literature - Medieval love of the ludicrous - Causes which made it influence the notions of demons - Stories of the pious painter and the erring monk - Darkness and ugliness caricatured - The demons in the miracle plays - The demons of Notre Dame

CHAPTER V ... 75
Employment of animals in medieval satire - Popularity of fables; Odo de Cirington - Reynard the fox - Burnellus and Fauvel - The Charivari - Le monde bestorne - Encaustic tiles - Shoeing the goose, and feeding pigs with roses - Satirical signs; The mustard maker

The monkey on burlesquee and caricature - Tournaments and single combats - Monstrous combinations of animal forms - Caricatures on costume - The hat - Te helmet - Ladies' head-dresses - The gown, and its long sleeves

Preservation of the character of the Mimus after the fall of the empire - The minstrel and the jogelour - History of popular stories -The fabliaux - Account of them - The contes devots

Caricatures of domestic life - State of domestic life in the middle ages - Examples of domestic ccaricature from the carving sof the misereres - Kitchen scenes - Domestic brawls - The fight for the breeches - The judicial duel between man and wife among the germans - Allusions to witchcraft - Satires on the trades: The baker, the miller, the wine-pedlar and the tavern-keeper, the ale-wife, etc.

CHAPTER IX ... 144
Grotesqe faces and figures - Prevalence of the taste for ugy and grotesque faces - Some of the popular forms derived from antiquity: The otngue lolling out, and the distorted mouth - Horrible subjects: The man and the serpents - Allegorical figures: Gluttony and luxury - Other representations of clerical gluttony and drunkenness - Grotesque figures of individuals, and grotesque groups - ornament sof the borders of books - Unintentional caricature; the mote and the beam

CHAPTER X ... 159
Satitrical literature in the middle ages - John de Hauteville and Alan de Lille - Golias and the Goliards - The Golliardic poetry - Taste for parody - Parodies on religious subjects - Political caricature in the middle ages - The Jews of Norwich - Caricature representations of countries - Local Satire - Political songs and poems

CHAPTER XI ... 188
Minstrelsy a subject of burlesque and caricature - Character of the minstrels - Their jokes upon themselves and upon one another - Various musical instruments represented in the sculptures of the medieval artists - Sir Matthew Gournay and the ring of Portugal - Discredit of the tabor and bagpipes - Mermaids

The court fool - The Normans and their gabs - Early history of court fools - Their costume - Carvings in the Cornish churches -The burlesque societies of the middle ages - The feasts of asses, and of fools - Theor license - The leaden money of the fools - The bishop's blessing

The dance of death - The paintings in the chuch of La Chaise Dieu - The reign of folly - Sebastian Brandt; The ship of fools - Disturbers of Church service - Troublesome beggars - Geilor's sermons - Radius, and his ship of foolish women - The pleasures of smell - Erasmus; the praise of folly

Popular literature and its heroes; Brother Rush, Tyll Eulenspiegel, the Wise Men of Gotham - Stories and jest-books - Skelton, Scogin, Tarlton, Peele

CHAPTER XV ... 244
The age of the Reformation - Thomas Murner; his general satires - Fruitfulness of folly - Hans Sachs - The trap for fools - Attacks on Luther - The Pope as antichrist - The pope-ass and the monk-calf - Other caricatures against the Pope - The good and bad shepherds

Origin of medieval farce and modern comedy - Hrothsvitha - Medieval notions of Terrence - The early religious plays - Mysteries and miracle plays - The farces - The drama in the Sixteenth Century

Diablerie in the Sixteenth Century - Early types of the diabolical forms - St. Anthony - St. Guthlac - Revival of the taste for such subjects in the beginning od the Sixteenth Century - The Flemish schhol of Breughel - The French and Italian schools - Callot, Salvator Rosa

Callot and his school - Callot's romantic history - His "Caprichi," and other burlesque works - The "Balli" and the beggars - Imitators of Callot; Della Bella - Examples of Della Bella - Romain de Hooghe

The satirical literature of the Sicteenth Century - Pasquil - Macaronic poetry - The Epistolae Obscurorum Vivorum -  Rabelais - Court of the Queen of Navarre, and its literary circle; Bonaventure des Perriers - Henri Etienne - The Ligue, and its satire; The "Satire Menippe"

CHAPTER XX ... 347
Political caricature in its infancy - The Reveres du Jeu des Suyesses - Caricature in France - The Three Orders - Period of the Ligue; Caricatures against Henri III. - Caricatures against the Ligue - Caricature in France in the Seventeenth Century - Genral galas - The quarrel of ambassadors - Caricature against Louis XIV; Willima of Furstemberg

Early political caricature in England - The satirical writings and pictures of the Commonwealth period - Satires against the bishops; Bishop Williams - Caricatures on the Cavaliers; Sir John Suckling - The Roaring Boys; Violence of the Royalist soldiers - Contest between the Presbyterians and Independents - Grinding the King's nose - Playing-cards used as the medium for caricature; Haselrigge and Lambert - Shrovetide

English comedy - Ben Jonson - The other writers of his school - Interruption of dramatic performances - Comedy after the Restoration - The Howards Brothers: The Duke of Buckingham; The Rehersal - Writers of comedy in the latter part of the Seventeenth Century - Indececy of the stage - Colley Cibber - Foote

Caricature in Holland - Romain de Hooghe - The Englosh revolution - Caricatures of Louis XIV. and James II. - Dr. Sacheverell- Caricature brought from Holland to England - Origin of the word "caricature" - Mississippi and the South Sea; The Year of Bubbles

English caricature in the age of George II. - English printsellers - Artists employed by them - Sir Robert Walpole's long ministry - The war with France - The Newcastle administration - Opera intrigues - Ascension of George III., and Lord Bute in power

Hogarth - His early history - His sets of pictures - The Harlot's Progress - The Rake's Progress - The Marriage a ala Mode - His other prints - The analysis of beauty, and the persecution arising out of it - His patronage by Lord Bute - Caricature of the times - Attacks to which he was exposed by it, and which hastened his death

The lesser caricaturists of the reign of King George III. - Paul Sandby - Collet: The Disaster, and Father Paul in his Cups - James Sayer: His caricatures in support of Pitt, and his reward - Carlo Kahn's triumph - Bunbury's: His caricatures on horsemanship - Woodward: General complaint - Rowlandson's influence on the style of those whose designs he etched - John Kay of Edinburgh: Looking a Rock in the Face

Gillray - His first attempts - His caricatures begin with the Shelburne ministry - Impeachment of Warren Hastings - Caricatures on the King; New Way to Pay the National Debt - Alleged reasons for Gillray's hostility to the King - The King and the Apple-Dumplings - Gillray's later labours - His idiotcy and death

Gillray's caricatures on social life - Thomas Rowlandson - His early life - He becomes a caricaturist - His style and works - His drawings - The Cruikshanks

Index to Names and Titles ... 495

Copyright © Comics
This Page Last Updated 25 April 2006.